Challenges for Introducing Nuclear Energy Program in Small Embarking Country – A. Causevski, S. Nikolova-Poceva, N. Popov, P. Groudev, N. Zaharieva

Nuclear Energy Program (NEP) for each country, especially for newcomer countries is a long-term process with
lot of challenges for the political establishment of the country, as well as for the institutions and all involved stakeholders.
According the IAEA recommendations, the process can be divided in 3 continuous phases. The achievement of the infrastructure
conditions for each of these phases is marked by a specific milestone at which point the progress and success of the
development effort can be assessed and a decision made to move on to the next phase.

These 3 milestones are:
— Milestone 1: Ready to make a knowledgeable commitment to a nuclear programme;
— Milestone 2: Ready to invite bids for the first nuclear power plant (NPP);
— Milestone 3: Ready to commission and operate the first NPP.

Some aspects which are analyzed for the case of Macedonia as an embarking country for NEP are the following ones:
— Covering the energy needs in the future energy mix including all options for new generation capacities
— Establishing the necessary infrastructure and capacities for nuclear power option
— Human resources needs for NEP
— Transfer the technologies in nuclear power from vendors to the country
— Financing the high investment nuclear power plant

All these highlights are treated in the paper, taking into account the results from the appropriated studies made in the academic
institutions and energy companies in the country. The potential opportunities for development the NEP in Macedonia
can be used as a base document with lot of collected database of national education, industry and energy infrastructure in
Macedonia for further studies and research.

Keywords: Nuclear Energy Program (NEP), embarking country, IAEA recommendations, alternatives for NEP development,
Stakeholders for NEP.